Cannabis, also known as marijuana, weed, pot, grass, dank, ganja, and less commonly, tree, are just some of the most common names for it's use as a psychoactive plant. Species of cannabis include Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The typical form of smokeable marijuana comes from the dried flowers and subtending leaves and stems of mature pistillate plants.
The primary psychoactive compound arising within cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or simply Marinol, as it commonly referred to. Though THC is the main compound resulting in the "high" associated with marijuana, at least sixty-six other cannabinoids are present in cannabis, including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), among others. These are believed to influence and enhance the effects of THC.
Cannabis is indigenous to Central and South Asia. Evidence of the inhalation of cannabis smoke can be found as far back as the third millennium B.C., as indicated by charred cannabis seeds found in a ritual brazier at an ancient burial site in present day Romania. Cannabis is also known to have been used by the ancient Hindus of India and Nepal thousands of years ago. The herb was called ganjika in Sanskrit. The ancient drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas as a sacred intoxicating hallucinogen, was sometimes associated with cannabis.
Cannabis was also known to the ancient Assyrians, who discovered its psychoactive properties through the Aryans. Using it in some religious ceremonies, they called it qunubu (meaning "way to produce smoke"), a probable origin of the modern word "cannabis". Marijuana was also introduced by the Aryans to the Scythians and Thracians, whose shamans burned cannabis flowers to induce a state of trance. Members of the cult of Dionysus are also thought to have inhaled cannabis smoke. In 2003, a leather basket filled with cannabis leaf fragments and seeds was found next to a 2,500 to 2,800-year-old mummified shaman in the northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.
Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the fifth to second century B.C., confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. One writer has claimed that cannabis was used as a religious sacrament by ancient Jews and early Christians due to the similarity between the Hebrew word "qannabbos" ("cannabis") and the Hebrew phrase "qené bósem" ("aromatic cane"). It was used by Muslims in various Sufi orders as early as the Mamluk period, for example by the Qalandars.
A study published in the South African Journal of Science showed that "pipes dug up from the garden of Shakespeare's home in Stratford upon Avon contain traces of cannabis." The chemical analysis was carried out after researchers hypothesized that the "noted weed" mentioned in Sonnet 76 and the "journey in my head" from Sonnet 27 could be references to cannabis and the use thereof.
Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937 due to Marihuana Tax Act of 1937. Several theories try to explain why it is illegal in most Western societies. Jack Herer, a cannabis legalization activist and writer, argues that the economic interests of the paper and chemical industry were a driving force to make it illegal. Another explanation is that beneficial effects of hemp would lower the profit of pharmaceutical companies which therefore have a vital interest to keep cannabis illegal. Those economic theories were criticized for not taking social aspect into account. The illegalization was rather a result of racism directed to associate American immigrants of Mexican and African descent with cannabis abuse.
Forms Of CannabisEdit
Marijuana generally represents the buds, flowers, leavers, and steams of the female cannabis plant. The plant has different THC potencies depending on region of growth, growing method, and time of cultivation, but the usual potency of THC in marijuana is anywhere from three to twenty percent; however, some strains can reach as high as thirty percent THC. Industrial hemp made from cannabis strains contain an extremely low amount of the psychoactive compound; less than half of a percent.
Hashish (spelled also hasheesh), or simply hash, is a resinous form of cannabis produced from the flowers and trichomes of the female plant. It is generally more potent than the botanical version marijuana, on the order of twenty to thirty percent THC. Hashish is most commonly smoked or consumed in cannabis food preperations. When smoked it is sprinkled atop marijuana in a joint, pipe, bong, or any other method of smoking. Due to different manufacturing processes, the color of hash ranges from green to reddish, black to yellow, or light to dark brown.
Hash oil, sometimes referred to as honey oil, is a hydrophobic essential oil extracted from the cannabis plant via various methods and solvents. It is potentially one of the most potent forms of cannabis that can be consumed or used. Its average concentration of THC per weight is nearly forty to sixty percent. Because of this potency, honey oil is commonly used in making a variety of cannabis foods.
Kief is an extremely potent powder processed from the removed trichomes of the flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant. It has the potential to be the most potent cannabis substance, being anywhere from eighty-five to ninety-eight percent pure THC.
Routes Of ConsumptionEdit
Cannabis is consumed in many different ways, most of which involve inhaling smoke. The most commonly used devices involved with this method of consumption include joints, tobacco-leaf-wrapped blunts, pipes, water or gravity bongs, hookahs, chillums, or by spotting the cannabis (burning it between to hot knives and inhaling the resulting vapors). Local methods differ by the preparation of the cannabis plant before use, the parts of the cannabis plant which are used, and the treatment of the smoke before inhalation.
A vaporizer heats herbal cannabis to 365 to 410 Fahrenheit (185 to 210 Celsius), which causes the active ingredients to evaporate into a gas without burning the plant material (the boiling point of THC is 392 degrees Fahrenheit (two hundred degrees Celsius), and somewhat higher at standard atmospheric pressure). A lower proportion of toxic chemicals are released than by smoking, although this may vary depending on the design of the vaporizer and the temperature at which it is set. This method of consuming cannabis produces markedly different effects than smoking due to the flash points of different cannabinoids; for example, CBN has a flash point of 212.7°C and would normally be present in smoke but might not be present in vapor.
As an alternative to smoking, cannabis may be consumed orally. However, the cannabis or its extract must be sufficiently heated or dehydrated to cause decarboxylation of its most abundant cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), into psychoactive THC.
Cannabinoids can be leached from cannabis plant matter using high-proof spirits (often grain alcohol) to create a tincture, often referred to as Green Dragon.
Cannabis can also be consumed as a tea. THC is lipophilic and only slightly water soluble (with a solubility of 2.8 milligrams per liter), so tea is made by first adding a saturated fat to hot water (i.e. cream or any milk except skim) with a small amount of cannabis, green or black tea leaves and honey or sugar, steeped for approximately five minutes.
Cannabis foods are any number of food products, namely dessert-type dishes such as brownies or cakes (but it is not uncommon that dinner-like main courses or appetizers are made with marijuana), that are made with marijuana or the resinous form of cannabis. There are numerous slang prefixes added to common foods to indicate the presence of marijuana. These include hash, magic, space, weed, cannabis, special, cosmic, and hyper. There are hundreds of foods that can coexist with cannabis; the following are just a few.
Cannabis, in any form, in a very mild hallucinogenic substance that produces psychological as well as physiological effects when consumed. The minimum amount of THC thought to produce any effect in humans is just ten micrograms per kilogram of body weight. Aside from a subjective change in perception and consciousness, the most common short-term physical and neurological effects include increased cardiac rate, lowered blood pressure, reddening of the eyes, and impairment of concentration and psychomotor coordination.
The "high" involved with cannabis use is fairly subjective and can vary from person to person and method of use; however, some of the most reported effects included an altered state of consciousness, feelings of well-being, euphoria, stress reduction and relaxation, increased appreciation of humor, music, art, joviality, metacognition, and introspection, slightly enhanced (or impaired) recognition, increased sensuality, increased awareness of sensation, increased libido, and creative thinking. Paranoia and anxiety have also been reported in some users.
Many effects are subjective however, such as increased enjoyment of food and aroma, and enhanced enjoyment of music and comedy, distortion of the perception of time and space. At higher doses, the effects may lead to auditory and visual distortions and illusions and altered body image. In much rarer cases, the use of cannabis has lead to depersonalization and derealization, though such effects are considered to be entirely welcomed and desirable.
Interestingly enough, in certain studies of the effects of THC and other cannabinoids, there was rather large difference in the reported effects of pure THC between the combination of all of marijuana's active psychoactive chemicals. Patients injected with pure THC reported a horrifying, depressive, and awful experience. On the contrary, subjects injected with THC mixed with the cannabinoids experienced unheard of elation, giddiness, and relaxation.
The physical effects are limited, but still quite noticeable. A sense of rushing nerve impulses shooting throughout the body have been reported as a usual symptom of cannabis use. Somatic effects include dry mouth, increased heart rate, reddening of the eyes, decreased intraocular pressure, and sensations of hot or cold hand and feet. With high doses, those sensation are found throughout the body (the rushing sensation reported by users). When the "high" subsides, or even before it has ended, many users report feeling a heavy drowsiness.
The duration of marijuana's effects are significantly different between method of consumption. When smoked and inhaled, the effects can be felt within minutes, and the peak is reached in a short half an hour. On the other hand, consuming cannabis through foods brings the onset between thirty minutes to two hours, but the effects last tremendously longer; around six hours instead of the two to three when smoked. Tenderness may persist for many hours to come until a significant amount of rest is received.
The smoking of cannabis is the most harmful method of consumption, as the inhalation of smoke from organic materials can cause various health problems.
By comparison, studies on the vaporization of cannabis found that subjects were "only 40% as likely to report respiratory symptoms as users who do not vaporize, even when age, sex, cigarette use, and amount of cannabis consumed are controlled." Another study found vaporizers to be "a safe and effective cannabinoid delivery system."
Cannabis is ranked one of the least harmful drugs by a study published in the United Kingdom medical journal, The Lancet. While a study in New Zealand of seventy-nine lung-cancer patients suggested daily cannabis smokers have a 5.7 times higher risk of lung cancer than non-users, another study of 2252 people in Los Angeles failed to find a correlation between the smoking of cannabis and lung, head or neck cancers. These effects have been attributed to the well documented anti-tumoral properties of cannabinoids, specifically tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol. Some studies have also found that moderate cannabis use may protect against head and neck cancers, as well as lung cancer. Some studies have shown that cannabidiol may also be useful in treating breast cancer.
Cannabis use has been assessed by several studies to be correlated with the development of anxiety, psychosis, and depression. Indeed, a 2007 meta-analysis estimated that cannabis use is statistically associated, in a dose-dependent manner, to an increased risk in the development of psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. However, it is important to note that no causal mechanism has been proven, and the meaning of the correlation and its direction is a subject of debate that has not been resolved in the scientific community. Some studies assess that the causality is more likely to involve a path from cannabis use to psychotic symptoms rather than a path from psychotic symptoms to cannabis use, while others assess the opposite direction of the causality, or hold cannabis to only form parts of a "causal constellation", while not inflicting mental health problems that would not have occurred in the absence of the cannabis use.
Though cannabis use has at times been associated with stroke, there is no firmly established link, and potential mechanisms are unknown. Similarly, there is no established relationship between cannabis use and heart disease, including exacerbation of cases of existing heart disease. Though some fMRI studies have shown changes in neurological function in long term heavy cannabis users, no long term behavioral effects after abstinence have been linked to these changes.
While nearly all drugs fall into one of three categories: stimulant, depressant, and hallucinogen, cannabis exhibits a mix of properties from all three classifications, perhaps leaning most toward hallucinogenic and psychedelic qualities, though the other characteristics are quite pronounced as well.
Although the extent of the medicinal value of cannabis has been debated, it does have several well-documented beneficial effects. Among these are: the amelioration of nausea and vomiting, stimulation of hunger in chemotherapy and AIDS patients, lowered intraocular eye pressure (shown to be effective for treating glaucoma), as well as general analgesic effects (pain reliever).
Less confirmed individual studies also have been conducted indicating cannabis to be beneficial to a gamut of conditions running from multiple sclerosis to depression. Synthesized cannabinoids are also sold as prescription drugs, including Marinol (dronabinol in the United States and Germany) and Cesamet (nabilone in Canada, Mexico, The United States and The United Kingdom).
Currently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved smoked marijuana for any condition or disease in the United States. Regardless, thirteen states have legalized cannabis for medical use. Canada, Spain, The Netherlands and Austria have also legalized cannabis for medicinal use.
A huge variety of illness, disorders, and syndromes can lead to the legal use of medicinal marijuana. These namely include austism, bipolar disorder, alcoholism, glaucoma, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), various cancers, childhood mental disorders, hepatitis C, sickle-cell anemia, sleep apnea, various arthritises, digestive diseases, gliomas, Huntington's disease, hypertension, epilepsy, dystonia, morning sickness, asthma, and diabetic retinopathy. Certain studies suggest that the use of marijuana can also help prevent Alzheimer's disease later in life, the increased intake of foo in HIV/AIDS patients, and the treatment of brain cancer.
Alaska — Alaska Supreme Court and lower courts have ruled that personal possession of cannabis is protected by state constitution's privacy clause. As recently as September 14, 2004, the AK Supreme Court refused to overturn a unanimous Appellate Court decision that police were not allowed to enter a home simply based on smelling cannabis smoke outside. The Alaska Legislature passed a law banning cannabis, but a judge struck down the law in July 2006: Judge rules against Alaska marijuana ban law, July 2006.
California — Possession of or giving away less than an ounce of marijuana is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine only ("Except as authorized by law, every person who gives away . . . not more than 28.5 grams of marijuana . . . is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars. Health and Safety Code sec. 11360). California Supreme Court has upheld the California Medical Marijuana law (state prop 215). July 19, 2002 In January 2008, a San Francisco Appeals court ruled that police may not enter and search a home without a warrant simply because they see someone inside smoking cannabis. "The possession and cultivation of marijuana is no more criminal -- so long as (the law's) conditions are satisfied -- than the possession and acquisition of any prescription drug with a physician's prescription." CA Chief Justice Ronald George.
Californian Cities: The city of West Hollywood adopted a policy in June 2006 that suggests police make "investigations, citations, arrests, property seizures, and prosecutions for adult marijuana offenses the lowest law enforcement priority in West Hollywood".
Berkeley passed two city ordinances "BMI I" and "BMI II" that tells police to make marijuana-law enforcement its lowest priority.
San Francisco is extremely tolerant of cannabis use. In November 2006, the SF Board of Supervisors approved an ordinance (8-3) making cannabis-related offenses the city police's lowest priority.
Santa Barbara (Prop P, Nov 2006) and Santa Cruz (Measure K) have passed rules making possession of cannabis the lowest enforcement priority for local police.
Colorado — City of Denver votes to legalize possession of up to an ounce of cannabis. Although police will still enforce Colorado state law, the city population has clearly expressed that they are dissatisfied with the state laws.
Massachusetts — In November 2008 voters overwhelmingly passed a ballot measure to decriminalize possession of up to one ounce of cannabis, making such offenses subject to a civil fine of one hundred dollars. Minors face a one thousand dollar fine and/or a mandatory drug awareness program. This is expected to become law sometime in December or January, but is subject to amendment or repealment by the legislature.
Michigan — In November 2008 a ballot measure passed legalizing the medical use of cannabis, which will remove state penalties for registered patients possessing cannabis. It will not create legal dispensaries or affect federal controls on cannabis in the state.
North Carolina — Dronabinol is Schedule II in N. Carolina.
Rhode Island — Rhode Island legalized the medical use of cannabis in Jan 2006, overriding a veto of the legislation by Governor Don Carcieri. The law allows people with certain illnesses such as cancer to register with the state, receive a special ID card, and then grow up to twelve plants or buy/possess up to 2.5 ounces of dried cannabis.
Argentina — Cannabis is controlled and illegal in Argentina, but a ruling by the Supreme Court in August 2009 declared the prosecution of the private use of cannabis to be unconstitutional.
Australia — Cannabis laws state by state. Decriminalized in Western Australia & South Australia. Tasmania, Victoria, and Queensland policies involve ticketing for below fifty grams.
Belgium — No amount of cannabis is legal to possess in Belgium, however possession of up to three grams of cannabis by adults, for personal use, is tolerated. It is also said that one female plant is tolerated. We have been told that if the possession meets the informal 'personal use' criteria, the police most often register the offense anonymously (do not record the individual's name) and the state will not prosecute. The criteria for this include: possession of an amount that is consumable in twenty-four hours (usually three grams or less), possession of leaf or bud and not oil or other processed product which are less tolerated; that the use is not around minors or while driving; and other factors that might indicate 'problematic use'. In practice, almost all non-problematic personal users will be registered anonymously.
Brazil — Cannabis sativa is listed as a controlled substance, making the plant and all of its parts illegal to cultivate, distribute, or possess. Other cannabis species do not appear to be listed, though THC is separately scheduled. Presumably any THC-containing plant is illegal by extension. We have been told that as of 2007 cannabis prohibition is not vigorously enforced.
Bulgaria — Cannabis is included in Schedule 1 of Bulgaria's Drugs and Precursors Control Act. Plants in the genus Cannabis containing greater than .2% tetrahydrocannabinol by weight are illegal to grow, possess, or sell.
Canada — Cannabis is schedule II in Canada (for more than three kilograms). Canada's cannabis control laws are spottily enforced, with the west coast (British Columbia) being well known for its high quality cannabis and low levels of enforcement. In 2002, Canada's federal government made several findings in favor of cannabis legalization and medical use approval. Although the status of medical cannabis is still in flux (sep 2002), the Canadian government has several times voiced its intention to support full medical use. Non-viable Cannabis seeds and Cannabis stalks (that do not include leaves, flowers, seeds or branches) are exempted.
Busts in Canada continue, especially of larger growing and distribution operations.
In July 2000, an Ontario Court of Appeal ruled against the Canadian law because it did not address medical necessity and on July 31, 2001 a new regulation was enacted by the cabinet which addressed medical use. In January 2003, a lower Ontario court ruled simple possession laws banning cannabis unconstitutional, although it is unclear what the long term implications of this might be.
Croatia — Possession of small amounts of cannabis can result in fines ($500-1000 US), mandatory rehab, and conditional sentencing (probation). Cultivation and sale of cannabis are punishable by imprisonment (three or more years). Driving under the influence of cannabis (as detected by saliva field tests) may lead to fine, rehab, and loss of license. (unconfirmed)
Czech Republic — In March 2008, the Czech Supreme Court overturned the conviction of a medical cannabis grower, finding that growing cannabis is not necessarily "illegal production". While cannabis is still illegal to possess, use, and produce under Czech law, this ruling is expected to influence the way drug laws are interpreted by lower courts.
Estonia — Cannabis is prohibited. "Seeds are legal to sell but illegal to import and export." (unconfirmed)
Germany — Cannabis is prohibited by the German BtMG (drug schedule), making it illegal to possess, cultivate, or sell. A reader comments that possession of six grams or less is generally not prosecuted, and more or less may be tolerated, depending on the state. The northern states tend to be more permissive than the southern states, where amounts smaller than a gram may even be prosecuted.
Greece — Cannabis is controlled in Greece and illegal to grow or possess. There are conflicting reports about how severely police treat minor possession offenses (less than one gram) with one submitter saying police are likely to overlook possession at that level and a March 2007 submitter saying that they were themselves prosecuted in southern Greece for 0.8 grams of cannabis and that raids on cannabis farms had increased over the last three years.
Hong Kong — Possession, cultivation, sale, and import of cannabis is forbidden by the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance 30/06/1997. Any offense is punishable by a fine of $100,000 and imprisonment for fifteen years.
India — Although India has a long history of the use of Cannabis, including involvement with religious traditions, it is illegal to grow or possess. In some areas, cannabis use is openly ignored by authorities, particularly during the festivals of Holi and ShivaRati.
Israel — Cannabis is illegal for most purposes in Israel, though inactive hempseed oil is sold and available in some products. Medical prescriptions/licenses have been increasingly available from 2007 to 2010.
Italy — Cannabis preparations and THC are illegal to use, sell, own, cultivate, etc. Penalties for possession of small amounts (less than five grams) can result in confiscation of passport or driving license. Possession of larger quantities is treated as possession with intent to sell and is subject to stronger penalties. (unconfirmed)
Jamaica — Possession, cultivation, sale, import, and use of ganja are prohibited by Jamaican law. The law is widely ignored and cannabis is often sold openly in markets.
Japan — Cannabis is prohibited under the Japanese Cannabis Control Act. However, viable cannabis seeds are available in headshops as of June 2005, selling for Y1300-Y2500 (twelve to twenty-three dollars) each. Growing the seeds is illegal and the shops have warnings that the seeds are just curiosity samples and the shop will not answer questions about cultivation. (unconfirmed)
Malta — Cannabis is illegal in Malta (Schedule 1). Possession for personal use is subject to fine, but prison terms are usually given only for trafficking. (unconfirmed)
Mexico — A new bill, passed by the Mexican Federal Legislature in late April 2006, has not yet been signed into law, but would decriminalize very small amounts of cannabis (under 5g) but would stiffen penalties for larger amounts and remove current discretion judges about the definition of "personal use amounts".
Netherlands — Although cannabis is technically illegal to possess and sell in the Netherlands, the government does not prosecute individuals (over eighteen) who smoke cannabis. Possession of less than five grams or growing of less than five plants will not be prosecuted. Cannabis seeds are reportedly not controlled and are legal to possess and sell. Certain cafes/coffee shops are allowed to sell cannabis and hold one hundred grams behind the counter and another five hundred grams in the back. Paradoxically, we have received unconfirmed reports that coffee shops are not allowed to legally purchase cannabis. In March of 2003, the Dutch government changed the law to allow doctors to prescribe cannabis for medical purposes through pharmacies.
On January 1, 2008, Dutch police will officially be disallowed from smoking cannabis while off duty. Dutch police complain it is their right to smoke cannabis while off-duty, December 15 2007, DailyMail.
New Zealand — Cannabis is a Class B controlled drug in New Zealand. It is illegal to cultivate, possess, or sell.
Norway — Although cannabis and its seeds are illegal in Norway including possession and sale, there is some exception for medical use. We have been told that seed possession and sale are now (as of 2000) prohibited.
The penalty for possession of small quantities of Cannabis (less than 15 g) is normally 3000 NOK. For more than 15 g, higher penalties apply and can include community service and jail in some cases. The Norwegian police does not punish use, possession and distribution of Marijuana as harshly as hashish, and hashish in Norway is often adulterated with other ingredients. (unconfirmed)
Pakistan — We have been told that in Peshawar and the northern parts of Pakistan, smoking hash is socially acceptable and even sold on an open market where the government does not intrude. One can be jailed for up to six months if they are caught with hash in other parts of the country, but it's apparently very common to bribe the police with as little as $5-20 to get out of an arrest. We are also told that many shops have hash behind the counter, but only sell to known customers. (unconfirmed)
Poland — Possession of cannabis is illegal in Poland. Even small amounts (one gram) are not tolerated and penalties can be high. Since Jun 2005 according to the new law, a new resocialization program for drug addicts has been formed as a alternative to putting young people in prison. Cannabis is still a public enemy treated the same way as 'hard drugs'.
Portugal — Effective July 2001, personal use of cannabis was decriminalized by Law 30/2000. Possession of less than twenty-five grams of leaves and flowering tops, five grams of resin, 2.5 grams of oil, or five hundred milligrams of THC is not regarded as a criminal offense, though the substance is liable to be seized and the possessor can be referred to mandatory treatment. Sale, or possession of quantities greater than the personal possession limit, are criminal offenses punishable by jail time. The police have a rather tolerant attitude towards cannabis consumption in major cities, and it is largely ignored.
Romania — According to a contributor: "Cannabis growing, possession, or selling is prohibited. Seeds have no legal status (neither legal nor illegal). If you are caught with seeds they will take them and you will receive not more than a warning. Possession of small amounts (one to three grams) is only punishable by a small fine (~$150-200). For bigger quantities possession or for growing (only for personal use) you can stay three or six years in prison. If you sell cannabis you can take over six years in prison." (unconfirmed)
Russia — Cannabis is a prohibited drug under Russian law. In December 2003, personal possession of up to twenty grams of cannabis was legalized.
Singapore — Cannabis is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act, making it illegal to cultivate, sell, or possess.
Spain — Cannabis is illegal in Spain, with small amounts punishable by fine. Larger amounts, cultivation, or sale are punishable by jail terms. Cannabis seeds are legal and are commonly available for purchase.
While cannabis is illegal to buy or grow, it is legal to smoke in your own home.
Sweden — Possession and sale of cannabis are illegal in Sweden. Possession of up to fifty grams usually results in a fine, fifty to 2500 grams usually leads to two weeks to a one year imprisonment, more than 2.5 kg generally results in two to ten years of imprisonment.
Taiwan — Cannabis is a schedule 2 narcotic in Taiwan, and possession can result in up to 3 years imprisonment.
U.K. — Cannabis was reclassified as a Class B drug in Britain in January 2009. Seeds are legal to posses but not legal to grow (unconfirmed).
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